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Wireless Platooning communications based on AI-enhanced 5G
The use case of vehicular platooning aims to use different levels of artificial intelligence to improve connectivity and management in vehicular platoon and in general V2X applications. AI algorithms for security, application development, orchestration, platoon formation and autonomous vehicle operation will be fused with wireless AI to propel autonomous vehicular and smart transportation systems with trustable user feedback. Autonomous vehicles promise to resolve many different aspects such as collisions or crashes which ascend to almost 5% of GDP in Europe. Vehicle platoons will make transportation of goods more efficient, less risky and with reduced delays. Currently traffic jams contribute to great economic and environmental problems, which aim to be resolved by autonomous vehicle coordination. Smart transportation systems will become more efficient for end user. InSecTT will introduce trust concepts in the design of 5G vehicular networks to improve end user experience and improve adoption of this technology in the EU market. End pedestrian users will get benefit form an autonomous and safe infrastructure but also more efficiently, monitored, traceable, trustable and accountable AI-V2x applications. V2x will not only be used for autonomous operation but also as an extension of the network infrastructure, thus providing entertainment, services, localization, over the air management and troubleshooting to end users or other vehicles. The use of aerial drone networks as distributed MIMO will improve reliability by a high amount probably enough to achieve the desired quality of service and reliability of autonomous vehicles need. The results of insect at the system level will allow EU to evaluate the best way to implement V2x infrastructure with ultra-low latency and achieve the regulations of safety, road performance, etc. Vehicle platoons will make cities and all the economic activity more efficient and therefore all aspects of society will be improved, including fuel consumption reduction, reduce emissions, reduced transportation items, reduce conflicts, increased efficiency and improved network coverage using vehicles as a network extension. The improvement of wireless connectivity will have an impact not only in vehicular networks but also in overall user performance with coordinated interference rejection between contiguous systems and that will make use of spectrum more efficient. Cognitive radio and software defined network radio will also fast reconfiguration times that will improve responsiveness to network incidents which now in vehicular IoT can be linked to safety issues. The multi-objective optimization framework proposed by insect will allow the use of societal metrics in network design as well as financial seeking to improve aspects such as fairness, coverage, outage probability in areas with disadvantage, priority to elderly users in vehicular networks, higher reliability to emergency vehicles, and also by becoming network infrastructure vehicular network can provide relief in areas of disaster. The improvement of 5g tools will make an impact not only in vehicular networks but also in other type of networks, by reducing latency end-to-end secure and trustable V2x service orchestration and spatially based authentication with MIMO direction of arrival estimation. Wireline like performance quantified we aim to achieve less than 3ms end to end latency and density of users improved by 100x as well as capacity 100x. Trust metrics aim to increase by several percentual points respect top previous approaches, based on the multi-metric security framework of SCOTT and Shields, availability, DoS resistance, privacy, anonymity etc. The use of new modulation formats and blind processing aims to reduce training by up to 90 percent, which yields higher spectrum efficiency targeting an improvement of at least 20%. Novel traffic prediction management aims to reduce congestions by at least 15% in an urban representative scenario which yields potentially big improvements in several economic and societal, environmental factors.
AI-enriched Wireless Avionics Resource Management and Secure/Safe Operation
The aeronautics industry expects huge benefits from the use of wireless technologies. It is estimated that cables constitute over 70% of aircraft weight. The use of wireless links could reduce this figure down to 55%. In addition, technologies such as AFC enabled by DWSANs can help reduce the effect of skin drag, thus further improving fuel consumption efficiency. A reduction of 10% in fuel consumption is translated into several millions of dollars in savings. It is estimated that the use of wireless technologies will bring a 12% reduction in terms of fuel consumption  Further improvements are possible when combined with other technologies such as winglets, carbon fibre fuselage and improved turbine design. The use of cables has one more benefit in terms of cabling planning tasks. It is estimated that these planning tasks have a cost of 2,200 dollars per kg of aircraft . When considering two types of aircraft the estimated savings are the following: A320/B737-900 6,400 kg x 2,200 $/kg ≈ $14 million, and A350-900/B787-9 23,000 kg x 2,200$/kg ≈ $50,6 million. It is also estimated that 13% of an aircraft operation cost is related to maintenance, reparation and overhaul. Wireless technologies are expected to have a big impact in the reduction of these costs. Automatic configuration, maintenance and troubleshooting can be performed over the air reducing maintenance service costs.
The use of artificial intelligence promises to further reduce the issues of WAICS and achieve a TRL of 4-7 depending of the scenario. The reduction of wires on board with a highly reliable deterministic and real time wireless technology enabled by AI will reach a new potential level higher than with previous approaches. The advantages of MIMO can reach the full potential of M packets per time slots where M is the number of antenna elements. This has direct impact of latency as well. MIMO in aeronautics is expected to suffer from correlation due to reduced space. However, artificial intelligence can be designed to reduce those effects and achieve a good trade-off.
In addition to the replacement of wires, WAICs will enable a new set of services on board aircraft, such as tracking, localization, wireless power transfer, mechanism failure detection, monitoring of issues where wires have difficulty to reach. Authentication based on direction of arrival estimation will create a new security layer for WAIcs, enabling the detection of issues or attackers on board the aircraft and also in the vicinities. The use of wireless technologies for sensing of air flow can lead to a fully integrated, cost effective solution for drag reduction that surpasses the effectiveness of current technologies. The mmwave spectrum of 5G promises to have these features to sense and at the same time provide actuation over the flow and achieve higher levels of aerodynamic efficiency. Wireless technologies can also estimate the movement of passengers and raise alarms in case of unwanted behavior. Finally, wireless technologies are expected to bring aircraft infrastructure to a whole new level of automation, configuration, self-healing, troubleshooting and over the air and on the fly management with modern wireless protocols for M2M and IoT.
Wireless Security Testing Environment for smart IOT
In the use case T5.3: Wireless Security Testing Environment for smart IOT, Partners will develop a set of tools (SW, HW), integrated into a platform, able to simulate and emulate current and future wireless communication scenarios in the automotive domain, as well as interoperability scenarios (e.g. vehicle with smart building, with smart city, etc.). Through providing interfaces for attack and failure injection, this platform will allow not only to verify and validate functionality, but also to test advanced cybersecurity attacks.
This will allow to efficiently test smart and connected systems, e.g. connected vehicles, for interoperability and security, resulting in
- significantly higher quality of the functionality and robustness of devices and services, due to increased testing Efficiency
Incompatibilities and other deficiencies can be found in shorter time, which becomes even more important as we see a drastic acceleration of product releases not known to the automotive industry before.
This increased product quality and robustness is an important asset for European manufactures to compete with the rapidly moving companies from the US and China, which come from Internet applications and other software domains
- significant gain in the level of security (and thus resilience) of systems brought onto the market, as a result of capabilities allowing to stage cybersecurity tests in an automat-able and highly efficient way, across multiple wireless systems, from physical to network to application layer.
The reputation of focusing on security, privacy and in general trustworthiness is a key asset of Europe. Technologies developed in this UC help to support this advantage.
- Acceleration of the product update and upgrade process: being able to efficiently verify and validate, and even more, to be able to adapt and extend the V&V environment as new technologies appear on the market, will allow the European ECS industry to take the lead. IoT relies on connectivity, even more across domains. Being able to emulate interoperating systems early, as they appear, will become important to for rapid innovation.
Intelligent wireless systems for smart port cross-domain applications
The port and its surrounding is an example of cross-domain environment, where different domains (maritime, smart infrastructure, rail) require specific components and sollutions to improve the overall efficiency or quality of is services. The combined use of wireless technologies, IoT sensors or systems, and reliable AI/ML algorithm can significantly improve economic viability of the whole infrastructure as seaports compete by reducing the time necessary to realize its business processes (e.g. ship operations, authorization, identification, localization), while keeping the investment costs (e.g. connected with installation and integration od necessary IoT systems) low. Therefore, from Use Case point of view, following impacts are expected:
- Reduction of time required to integrate cross-domain solutions – 25% reduction of total time
- Integration of solutions from different technologies, products or systems providers for complex and demanding cross-domain applications requires considerable time to agree expected system behaviour (especially if they contain Ai/ML solutions), the necessary interfaces and ways the systems will interact, what is followed by implementation – usually time- and cost-consuming. It is expected that proposed methods within this use case, including the envisioned use of EU’s FiWARE platform  and reliable (e.g. with deterministic watchdogs) AI/ML solutions, will help to find the ways to integrate such systems much faster.
- Reduction of time time required for authorization and identification processes – 15% reduction of time
- Simplification of the security procedures by introducing self-aware, AI-enchanced wireless network of smart components for access control and facility monitoring, with integrated identification and authorization capabilities
- Increase the level of reliability and security of wireless sensor network through deployment of smart (AI-enriched) components
- Based on analyses of physical aspects of radio signal, dedicated component aims at increasing the overall level of safety of wireless communication-based system. It is expected, that introduced compoenents will significantly reduce at least two types of threats in wireless communication-based systems (e.g. jamming, man in the middle), which will be measured using methods proposed within this proposal.
- Increase of level of safety and security in industrial areas (ports)
- Usage of spatial information about objects gathered from external subsystems (like the Multimodal Positioning Subsystem) as an additional factor in the processing of their authorisation and authentication in ACS or as additional, descriptive data used in the object behaviour monitoring (OM) process within critical infrastructure zones (i.e. virtual fences management tools; advanced, distributed context reasoning engines infrastructure)
- Usage of adaptive algorithms for dynamic management of AC&OMS security and configuration profiles (system’s security and configuration profile will depend on overall level of threat estimated on the basis of gathered data and defined reasoning rules).
InSecTT’s AI/ML-enriched edge solutions using dependable wireless connectivity, apart from energy-efficiency, will have an impact also on solutions that increase safety and operational efficiency of maritime transport allowing for more efficient, competitive and safe ship operations and increased environmental performance of vessels. Eventually, reliable and secure edge AI/ML-enriched computing will be a part of the future concept of the autonomous ships, which have the potential for tremendous impact on safety in maritime industry. Autonomous or more automated solutions for maritime will minimize the number of persons in dangerous work areas, e.g. on the deck or during mooring operations, considerably increasing safety and security at sea – one of the key differentiators for improving competitiveness of European maritime sector and a major objective of the EU Maritime Transport Strategy . Another InSecTT impact, with respect to AI/ML-enriched edge solutions, will be on passengers’ safety, as a part of maritime InSecTT wireless solutions are embedded wireless systems that allow for inexpensive on-deck localization. This approach can be used for tracking (without jeopardising their privacy) passengers and inform about life-threating situations (e.g. if someone will accidently overboard and can be aligned with increasing demand for shipping of all types, but especially for water carriers, large and sophisticated cruise ships to provide leisure activities, in which safety of passengers is primary concern, and at the same time create significant opportunities for the European industry.
Additionally, underwater technologies and systems will be used to complete the development and the integration of the underwater barriers in the port network, to extend the application of originally military solutions to civil/dual uses. As reported in other sections of this proposal, these components allow to complete the port monitoring system, so to control the full perimeter, including the underwater accesses. From this perspective, it is fundamental the integration with the wireless solutions proposed in this project, to extend the barriers capabilities and to transfer to the port authority control room all the information neded to ensure the port area security.
The underwater multi-sensor security system belongs to the Marine Port Security Market. Worldwide there are now over 9,000 ports which fall under the International Ship and Port Facility Security (ISPS) Code. The tremendous growth in the world maritime trade has spurred these ports to expand their capacity, infrastructure, and to reorganize their strategies to take advantage of the new business prospects. At the forefront of this trend are the world’s four biggest port operating companies, namely Hong Kong-based Hutchison Port Holdings (HPH), Singapore’s PSA Corporation, Dubai Ports World (DPW) and P&O Ports managing ports worldwide. The Global Airport and Marine Port Security Market was valued at USD 54.21 billion in 2016 and is projected to reach USD 113.53 billion by 2025, growing at a CAGR of 8.56% from 2017 to 2025.
Marine ports are the entrance for the global economy passenger travel as well as for the exchange of goods. These critical infrastructures implement different security solution such as surveillance systems, screening and scanning, network access and more. This implementation of security systems is vital to ensure the safety of not only the goods being exported as well as imported but also of the passengers who are traveling. The rising investments in the infrastructure of these travel gateways are assisting the growth of the security infrastructure as well. The increasing number of both external as well as internal threats along with the rise in the investments in the infrastructure of the marine ports has resulted in the need for more stringent security regulations and policies. These factors are aiding the marine port security market to grow. Factors that are restraining the market are the increasing complexities of the security breaches as well as the difficulties in the advancement of the technology of the security systems. The main innovation and impact from Use Case point of view that concerning underwater multi-sensor security systems and associated markets are:
- Market Innovation: Harbour Critical Infrastructure Monitoring and protection systems will become increasingly important with the increase of the world maritime trade. The integration of smart land-based and marine surveillance systems, underwater multi-sensor security systems (composed of underwater acoustic and magnetic barriers) and AI-based management solutions could be a significant asset in the reference market, able to reduce/avoid false alarms and to simplify operators’ decisions providing reliable information in real-time so as to ensure a timely and effective response to the potential threats.
- Market Impact: The maritime infrastructure market is acting proactively rather than reactively in their request for improved sensors and development of technology that can detect and prevent threat and attacks. The sector is as vulnerable as it is keen to find a solution. The high value and vulnerable maritime infrastructure market is the target market for the technologies that will be developed in the Port UC. This segment has a combined fleet of over 38,000 assets. For these vessels and maritime infrastructure, the adoption of these technologies would thus constitute a relatively small investment in relation to the value of the protection they are offering. It is expected that these technologies will allow being ready for the new market requests with adaptable/scalable proven solutions, already compatible with state of the art of local communication systems (e.g. 5G networks) This would allow to potentially penetrate to a huge market, reducing significantly the security risks in addition to improving the overall monitoring performance of the harbour infrastructures.
Finally, due to cross-domain approach, the Use Case will also have its impact on wide EU industry operating traditionally in other than maritime or seaport domains. InSecTT solutions will be built on solutions that are already proposed by EU industry in other domains – it is planned to reuse IC of EU origin that already operate in available standards, for example IEEE 801.11p used for car-to-car or car-to-infrastructure communication, after adaptations to more secure and reliable versions will be used in both automotive, maritime and also other domains. In means, the one of the biggest impacts of this Use Case may be to widen the scope of applications of ICT potential already present in EU and create more value chains, in which EU companies have the leading role.
 Commission Staff Working Document on the implementation of the EU Maritime Transport Strategy 2009-2018, Brussels 30.9.2016, SWD920160 326 final
Smart and adaptive connected solutions across health continuum
Chronic illnesses – such as cancer, heart disease and diabetes – now account for 38 million worldwide deaths each year according to the World Health Organization (WHO). They are placing enormous financial strains on healthcare systems. For example, the American Diabetes Association estimates the total costs of diagnosed diabetes cases in the US increased from $174 billion in 2007 to $245 billion in 2012.
Over recent years Philips has been evolving into a digital health and well-being company, empowering people to live healthier lives across what we call the health continuum: from Healthy Living to Disease Prevention, Diagnosis, Treatment and Home Care.
The enhancement of digital health tools to enable consumers to take greater control of their personal health. They comprise three elements: a cloud-based platform where health data is compiled and analyzed and where our apps live – we call this the Philips HealthSuite Digital Platform; professional, connected measurement devices; and personalized, professional coaching.
Key impact of the telehealth program of Philips
The proposed use case will impact the existing healthcare solutions in the following way:
- Highly adaptive connected medical devices to seamlessly monitor health condition of the patients. This will impact the long-term medical cost-to-care efficiency and will reduce the hospitalization costs by 15%.
- Lower the burn-out of medical professionals by automating health condition sensing in lower-acuity patients, thereby lowering the human-error by 30% in clinical decision making.
- Extend remote monitoring to remote diagnostics, to improve first responder accuracy in emergency situations.
- Lower infant mortality by 20% in remote villages by extending the high bandwidth ultra-sound diagnostics for pregnant women.
- Increase the accuracy of clinical data and prevent inconsistencies in critical medical data
- Prevent the waste of precious time of medical experts by 30% by reducing the need for travel to the patients that are unable to move, by using remote diagnostic equipment or providing tele-guidance to less skilled medical personnel in the field or local hospital.
Location awareness for improved outcomes and efficient care delivery in healthcare
Over recent years Philips has been evolving into a digital health and well-being company, empowering people to live healthier lives across what we call the health continuum: from Healthy Living to Disease Prevention, Diagnosis, Treatment and Home Care. The enhancement of digital health solutions to enable consumers to take greater control of their personal health. They comprise three elements: a cloud-based platform where health data is compiled and analyzed and where our apps live – we call this the Philips Health Suite Digital Platform; professional, connected measurement devices; and personalized, professional coaching.
The proposed use case will impact the healthcare solutions in the following way:
- Efficiently manage the clinical workflow, thereby enhancing the clinical attention to the patients by 50%
- Prevent waste of resources in hospitals by 40% by enabling faster and optimal reuse of medical assets by efficient utilization of locating and tracking technologies
- Prevent the waste of precious time of medical experts by 30% in for the following cases:
- Knowing the location of patients, who may be wandering in and around the hospital or home, to assure that they will be safe and will be on time for appointments, regular health checks and treatment.
- Knowing the whereabouts of mobile medical equipment, devices and other assets.
- Know the compliance with respect to patient exercise, food intake, smoking habits and their medication intake adherence.
- Enable with technology partners to progress beyond the location technology and with the use of AI algorithms to provide holistic location awareness in every hospital ecosystem
- Enable location awareness in a cost-efficient way, such that new solutions would fit using the existing infrastructure of connectivity. This will save 60% in expenditure per year in hospitals
- Create universal guidelines for new privacy and ethics regulations that governs the pesonal information of the patients such as location information.
Intelligent Transportation for Smart Cities
The aim of the UC5.7 is to develop a decision-making system, which use the Artificial Intelligence (AI) mechanism to manage the traffic jams, improving the road and rail traffic in the cities maintaining the trustability of the system.
The developments carried out in this UC are based on previous works performed in the SCOTT and DEWI projects.
Along the European railway lines, there are many critical scenarios where several accidents occur every year. Many of these are located on the level crossing, where are involved different actors as pedestrians, vehicles, etc. During 2017 in Spain, just the incidents in the level crossings with safety barrier and without it rises to 25 according to the annual report performed by the “Agencia Estatal de Seguridad Ferroviaria“.
The rail operators are interested in increase the safety in the critical points making use of the new technologies due to most of these scenarios can not eliminate the risk by closing it. In fact, a new system called Trustable Warning System (TWS) will be bring to the market in the coming years for manage critical scenarios as the level crossing or the working areas using wireless communications.
All these explained innovation works will allow an efficient implementation of smart, trustable safe and secure systems for rail automation that will provide:
- Increment the safety in critical scenarios as level crossings.
- by providing intelligence to the trustable decisor
- by increasing the communication between actors in critical scenarios
- Enhance management of the cross-domains areas
- by establishing priorities
- by managing multimodal jams
- Minimize the CAPEX/ cost
- by implementing wireless solution
- Improve the reliability, safety and security of the system:
- by applying safety and secure rules and directives for the reliable communication between the urban stakeholders involved.
- by providing the specification for the safety and security requirements necessary for the use of distributed AI mechanisms.
Intelligent Automation Services for Smart Transportation
This Use Case focus on the automation of different train operation processes making use of Artificial Intelligence. The analysis of current technologies concerning the smoothing of virtual coupling and enhancing of ATO, ATC and ATP systems and the different grades of automation is needed to previously define the grade of automation that the system has to reach.
The integration of existing technologies and new ones to enhance the automatic train operation to make the difference in the railway market. By improving functionalities such as speed control, timing control of the stops and decentralizing the decisions, it is possible to enhance the current state of the railway transportation, having an important impact in the railway market.
Moreover, the use of artificial intelligence mechanisms to improve the deployment of a smoother virtual coupling maneuvers during the trip will help to make the speed changes processes more comfortable for the passengers and safer for the cargo.
The development of this use case has to accomplish the objective of solving or reducing the drawbacks and comfort for passengers and certain type of cargo operations in a safe and secure way. This will directly impact over the railway traffic, giving a new vision for the market concerning the possibility of reducing risks and improve the line capacity by making more efficient and comfortable the coupling and uncoupling maneuvers.
Moreover, this development has to accomplish the objective of increasing the grade of automation of both the Rail operations and infrastructure, by implementing safety and security capabilities. This will have an important impact in the market, allowing the implementation of a trustable system which enhances the features of current ATO and ATP systems by using artificial intelligence, introducing IoT concepts in the railway market to make it more competitive.
All these explained innovation works will allow an efficient implementation of smart, trustable safe and secure systems for rail automation that will provide:
- The increment of the efficiency of the rail infrastructure and the On-Board systems:
- by the inclusion of the automation of the coupling and uncoupling maneuvers along the tracks, via Artificial Intelligence.
- by smoothing these processes and making them comfortable for the rail users, both for passengers and freight lines.
- The progressive conversion of conventional lines into ATO lines:
- by providing intelligence to the railway traffic processes connecting all to all
- by increasing the grade of automation of rail operation and infrastructure
- Improve the flexibility of the system:
- by introducing the automation of the CCS
- by Including distributed solutions to efficiently manage the exchange of information
- It will help to acquire major capacity and improve the timetable adherence due to a more efficient traffic management (i.e. minimizing unexpected train stops or reducing the safe distance between trains).
- Acquire major capacity and improve the timetable adherence for a more efficient traffic management:
- by minimizing unexpected train stops
- by safely reducing the distance between trains
- Improve the reliability, safety and security of the system:
- by applying safety and secure rules and directives for the reliable communication between the infrastructure and the trains.
- by providing the specification for the safety and security requirements necessary for the use of distributed AI mechanisms.
Cybersecurity in Manufacturing
For security testing on industrial automation systems, TIA-Portal integrated security modules are being used, for software security tests. For interconnection from PLC to cloud, OPC servers are used. For web applications, open source technologies such as Wapiti, Grabber, SQLMap are used.
Currently no machine learning based security system is being used also no system wide framework is being used for the holistic view of the system with monitoring. Needs for deep analysis mostly can be on PLC level, network level, digital data safety and data tampering measures. As in most of our applications PLC’s are used as backbone to provide sensor data into cloud systems, and also used for critical automation processes therefore comprimise of the PLC systems can have the most destructive effect on the customer premises. For this reason, deep analysis, anomaly detection needs to be done in PLC connected edge devices near-real-time to reduce risks of comprimise.
Seamless and uninterrupted operations is critical in the industrial automation as most of the factories operate 24/7. Interruptions in the operations cause delays in the production of the products which in return can result in huge losses for the factories. A challenge in that regard is the diverse nature of the industrial automation components, which is exponentially increasing with the advancements in computing infrastructure. Complex systems are created out of many components such as sensors, robots, legacy hardware, PLC, OPC systems, IoT devices, machine learning systems and cloud interaction endpoints using various communication protocols over a not so secure network infrastucture. This nature of the process creates possibility for many attack vectors which can be exploited by adversary parties.
To prevent interruptions, one has to cover security of individual parts but also interaction of the components also needs to be secured. For example, in a general application there are access control, version controlling, antimalware checks, application security, firewall and gateway security, communication between subsystems and network segmentation.
Specifically, for in/outbound logistics, there are products coming to be used for the automation system and also there are applications delivered to our customers.
Pilot is challenging for several reasons. First the complexity of the system is high as there is interaction between automation systems (hardware, PLC’s, HMI’s, electrical units) and software applications (data analysis, web servers, databases) in a static and dynamic network (in premise closed network, network segmentation, endpoints for cloud access) and in a real world environment (real factory premises, hard to see the location of the components, subjectable to noise and data tampering) with huge risks involved (1 hour delay in production for certain equipment can easily cost 100k Euros).
Robust resources management for construction of large infrastructures
Construction industry is one of the biggest industries of any European country. It makes a significant contribution to the national economy and it employs a large number of workforces. To undertake projects of mega scale, this industry has advent a revolutionary change by using new technologies and deployment of project management strategies in real time. Unless enterprises start strategic mobile plan and projects, into their operation the issues cannot be resolved, this means an inefficient use of infrastructure, and IT endeavor has become must for the construction industry.
ACCIONA, one of the leading construction companies in the world, is well known for using the latest techniques to carry out projects. Through InSecTT, ACCIONA aims to revolutionize the way inspection, tracking, quality control, and safety in construction are handle through innovative solutions based on IoT and AI. InSecTT changes the way different actors in the construction field interact among themselves while at the same time disrupts the market by introducing new IoT and AI in a handy and accessible way and allowing transparent processes.
Construction sector, although it has a very high worldwide turnover and an effectively incorporated industrial machinery into its processes, is still very traditional in the way it executes its tasks. Thus, the profit margin of Construction is very narrow, being very sensitive to deviations in tasks that may occur during the life of the project. Digital Transformation within the construction sector is a necessity to ensure the correct execution of the tasks and the extension of the profit margin of the works (due to the fact of adjusting time, saving costs, predicting and preventing risks and avoiding re-works). This digital transformation includes a multitude of work areas and one of them is the correct implementation, data management and production of valuable information of IoT devices. In order for works to accept and implement these devices and processes in a natural way, convinced of the generation of value and cost savings they produce, InSecTT will collaborate in the implementation of IoT technology that generates the value, confidence and learning necessary for ACCIONA to understand how to improve its benefits and production processes.
ACCIONA contributes to BB3.2 Real-time monitoring and response based on the needs of UC5.10. Specifically, BB3.2 focuses on the technical solutions that InSecTT will develop to improve the knowledge of the geolocation of geographically dispersed machinery. In recent years, ACCIONA has worked on implementing commercial solutions for the location of equipment and machinery in real pilots throughout the world, with a double objective: on the one hand, knowing the real-time position of each of its assets and on the other hand, knowing their displacements and tasks. Based on the correct acquisition of this data, the information obtained can be analyzed and managed and very useful set of results on its productivity improvement can be obtained. The conclusion from ACCIONA’s experience is that these technologies are not achieved enough yet. The impact expected due to the improvement of these systems in BB3.2 and its associated use case UC5.10. for ACCIONA will be:
- Current location of equipment, without the need for using different management software or incompatibilities in different countries or continents. Impact: To have a general and real registry of updated equipment, which will avoid costs for unnecessary purchases or poor management of the existing one.
- An effective communication in the geolocation of this equipment will allow improving the production of each one of them. Impact: Downtime and poor management will be avoided, optimizing your productivity at values close to 100%
- Equipment to be monitored is heterogeneous and global. Impact: The same technology developed in InSecTT will work for any machine, avoiding interoperability problems between manufacturers of commercial solutions.
- Regarding to construction machines, these are usually in remote locations, without any IT support (production workers only). If there are connectivity or information transmission problems, equipment will have to continue working without sending data. Impact: The improvement in the communications reliability implemented by InSecTT will imply less cuts in machinery communication, improving its productivity.
- A frequent equipment remote location make them a target of cybercriminals to be hacked or capture information. Impact: InSecTT systems will improve the security of communications, not losing connectivity and maintaining production.
- If one or more teams lose connectivity or are in adverse circumstances, thanks to InSecTT improvements, they will have an AI better than commercial systems that will allow them to make decisions that are more valuable. Impact: These decisions will maximize the productivity of the works and minimize the information cuts.
- Previous points involve a more secure and error-free connection, which implies a greater amount of reliable data to be processed, obtaining better equipment management strategies. Impact: Productivity is improved.
As it was told before, Construction sector has very narrow profit margin. If due to the use of InSecTT technology, construction production could be improved by 1% or 2% compared to commercial systems while maintaining their costs, this fact would produce a significant impact on the margin of the works and a consequent reduction of risks for this sector.
Services for the passengers (and their visitors) and the airport operations (inside the terminals, within apron and docking area) require smart infrastructure with accurate information on time. Wireless connectivity is the only technology that provide mobility to all (passengers, visitors, airline staff, employees, vehicles e.g. planes, trucks, carriers, buses) within the whole facilities plant including terminals, runways, aprons, docks, offices, industrial sites, public transportation inbound/outbound.
To give better services to all passengers/visitors, and also to improve the efficiency of all airport operations e.g. optimizing the utilization of the resources, reducing delays, increasing the predictability of events, identification, localization, tracking and monitoring with secure and reliable communication is mandatory within the whole airport facilities plant. Due to the use of wide variety of the wireless communications within the airport, the main focus is on securing the wireless communications especially on airport operations. Securing the communication, providing resilience to the cyber-attacks, improving the reliability, providing the reliability under harsh conditions are the issues those will be addressed in the use case. Moreover, most of the operations requires real-time communication. Interaction of these various type entities and the management of all assets operations introduce challenges which require enhancements primarily in the following topics which are the BBs defined in InSecTT:
- Securing wireless communication (resilient to interferences and cyberattacks) for all wireless technologies within the airport facilities plant e.g. all mobile assets and the infrastructure
- Providing reliable communication in harsh environment
- Objects/assets localization, tracking and management
This use case will address the use of AI-enhanced secure and reliable communication technologies to enhance the security, safety, reliability in the airport operations. Moreover, the use of AI-integrated wireless technologies for localization and asset management will improve the service quality at airport operations and passenger experience.
The following tasks are considered to be included in the use case:
- Focusing on the secure wireless communication components with increased resilience to interference and cyberattacks
- Development of reliable location-based services (1) for the assets management and (2) for the people arriving/leaving the airport
- Demonstration of the developed technologies within real operation environment
In these tasks, AI-based approaches are considered to be used in the end (IoT) devices, the edge devices and at the core (cloud) services, for the following aims:
- Securing the communication at high level by introducing machine learning
- Mitigating adverse effects of interference
- Detecting, identifying, and mitigating the jamming
- Enhancing the connectivity and coverage with the use of AI-based approaches for more resilient communication
- Localization accuracy with the use of machine learning approaches and smart antenna designs
Driver Monitoring and Distraction Detection using AI
According to the European Transport Safety Council  several national surveys across Europe have revealed worrying behavior to the use of mobile devices while driving.
- In Czech Republic, 36% of drivers admitted using their phone almost every time they are behind the wheel.
- In Spain and Ireland, 25% of drivers admitted to using their phone behind the wheel.
- In Germany, 50% of drivers admitted to using their phone, at least occasionally.
- In France, the official figure is that 9% of fatal collisions occur due to distracted mobile phone use.
- The RSA in Ireland says distraction in general is a factor in 20-30% of collisions.
As a result, several countries including Ireland and Italy have considered increases to fines or the number of penalty points for drivers caught driving while distracted. The UK doubled its fines for distracted driving in 2017.
Moreover, in the U.S., according to the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) in 2017 ,,166 people (9% of overall fatalities) were killed in motor vehicle crashes involving distracted drivers, based on data from the Fatality Analysis Reporting System (FARS). 401 fatal crashes were reported to have involved cell phone use as a distraction (14% of all fatal distraction-affected crashes) and a total of 434 people died in crashes that involved cell-phone-related activities as distractions. One of the major limitations mentioned in the report about data collection, is that data is based on police accident reports and vary considerably across jurisdictions, thus creating possible inconsistencies. A main obstacle in improving the current system is the rapid speed of technologies’ evolution and incorporating these changes at the same speed is impossible. Without a flexible way to incorporate new technologies and features for data collection, it is difficult to encapsulate data involving interaction with new devices.
The proposed use case offers the following impact benefits:
- Seamlessly incorporate cheap and available technologies that drivers already own and use to collect more trusted distraction data up to 40%
- Increase accuracy and eliminate inconsistencies of accident report data collected by authorities and policymakers
- Increase security and safety by reducing security incidents on company properties by 30% (organizational scenario)
- Increase the attention of drivers towards driving by 30% (individual driver scenario)
- Enable affordable driving distraction application for smartphones and omitting the costs of installing fixed systems in vehicles by 100%
- Increase the data collection accuracy of distraction-related behaviors of drivers by 40%
- Lower insurance costs based on preventing phone usage while driving
- Avoid lawsuits, penalties and fines from distracted driving
- Protect organization reputation (in the case of a vehicle fleet owner) by avoiding incidents caused by inattentive driving
- Feedback to drivers on their overall driving habits can help them learn to practice safer driving (less hard braking, less usage of mobile phone devices, etc.)
- Drivers equipped with the right technology can play an active role in preventing distracted driving crashes, and technology can act as a virtual “coach” to help them do so.
A recent study conducted analyzing a driving dataset of 100B miles within 3 months to help understand the problem of distracted-driving and develop strategies to prevent this risky behavior, identified driver phone use as one of the most vexing traffic safety challenges today. The anonymized data from 4.5M drivers showed that on an average day, over 60% of people use their phones at least once while driving. Compared to their previous study the average amount of driver phone usage per hour has also increased, for 3 minutes, 40 seconds every hour. This helped to understand the length of the problem, but to make a measurable difference in traffic accidents new strategies and legal structures need to be put in effect to make substantial progress.
According to the website , motor vehicle crashes are the leading cause of workplace death (fatal crashes), accounting for 24% of all fatal occupational injuries. Organizations may avoid large lawsuits and damages to their finances by avoiding penalties and fines but also lower the cost of vehicle insurance, if they show investments in driver safety. Companies can have incurring costs of more than $24,500 per property damage crash and $150,000 per injury crash5. Investment in technology targeting distracted driving may also protect their reputation by reducing accidents of employees behind the wheel by investing in advanced technologies that can help them control phone usage. By using technologies to force compliance to the written policies organizations have, may also open up opportunities to focus on other important business issues. Moreover, such solutions can offer organizations and individuals quantifiable, actionable data regarding driver behavior which can be used to improve driving in an efficient manner.
Secure Industrial Communications System
The objectives of InSecTT Project are in line with Westermo’s current network security strategy and fits well with the work we want to do. We now have a coherent operating system for our products, which in the latest version being launched can also be run virtually. In short, this means that we could serve as the basis for all the parts needed for detection, feedback and testing as described in the network security use case context.
Westermo sees this as an opportunity to build up competence around this important domain within EU. One of the biggest threats many of Westermo’s customers point out today is attacks on their “supply chain”. They see a need for control of the products they use all the way from development, through production and throughout the life cycle of the system. Further work on it with the results of the InSecTT project could broaden our product portfolio and offer a solution that extends over the entire life cycle of the system and is not dependent on other actors.
The product and services of Westermo are related to the company’s wide range of resilient networking products. The collaboration within InSeCTT will bring new innovative components to these products and services that will strengthen the company‘s offering to customers within domains such as manufacturing, transportation etc.
Secure and Resilient Collaborative Manufacturing Environments
A history of attacks on cyber physical systems, one notable early example being Stuxnet, show that these systems are vulnerable to attacks, perhaps more so than IT systems, which have been networked and exposed to attacks for many decades and hence are better prepared to meet such challenges. Bringing security/safety assurance of OT domain of cyber physical systems to at least to such levels of IT Security is itself going to be extremely challenging. However, OT domains being safety critical, warrant even higher levels of assurances w.r.t safety and security. We aim to solve this identified digital security challenge of security threats and attacks on cooperating cyber-physical systems (specifically in the context of manufacturing in Future factories), by providing a framework for detection of a wide class of cyber-attacks using advanced machine learning techniques and help in deploying appropriate mitigation mechanisms.
Usable solutions in daily operation of manufacturing facilities
Our focus is on autonomic or semi-autonomic solutions which are amenable to be deployed in synergy with the existing IT+OT infrastructures prevalent in typical manufacturing facilities. We will also describe a process for deployment of our framework in manufacturing contexts to enhance the security of their digital infrastructure.
Through use cases UC5.13 & UC5.14 we will demonstarte implementation of our novel solutions usable in daily operations in relevant industrial contexts, taking care of the partner priorities with respect to:
- The ABB perspectives on control systems and edge to cloud services interactions
- The Wetermo perspective on secure communication and networks
- We will provide important information and tools to reach such a goal.
These use cases will showcase how the embedded robust, transversal and scalable ICT infrastructure (sensors, connected machines, communication tools) resilient to cyber-attacks can underpin the relevant, specific ICT systems ensuring sustainable cyber-security, digital privacy and accountability.
Take-up by industry and other actors in the value chain
Meeting and balancing the requirements from all involved stakeholders across the value chain is a key business concern for ABB.
Multiple angles for exploitation from our industrial partners, which covers major set of essential stakeholders in a manufacturing context. Additionally, we plan to approach few more players (especially representing suppliers, cloud providers, maintenance firms and governmental agencies) as part of our dissemination and exploitation activities to present our approach and discuss its pros and cons and well as to refine the framework to incorporate their relevant suggestions/requirements.
We describe the expected impact in terms of our industrial objectives (IOx) and associated metrics we will use (KPIy).
- IO1: Preventing leakage of sensitive information to unauthorized parties (confidentiality breaches) and unauthorized tampering of production data (integrity breaches) in FoF multiple-stakeholder value chains.
- KPI1: Verification of model of information-flow accesses and demonstrated resilience against at least 9 of 10 identified top threats/attacks.
- IO2: Contributing to security-aware digital collaboration and safety of FoF by identifying threats, proactively evaluating threat-resilience, and releasing appropriate countermeasures.
- KPI2: Demonstrated ability to detect and correctly classify 9 out of 10 identified top threats/attacks, and activation of appropriate countermeasures in 7 of these cases, ensuring continued safe operation.
Intelligent Safety and Security of Public Transport in urban environment
Smart City Public Transportation Impact – AVM Sector
AVM (Automatic Vehicle Monitoring) solutions may evolve using of public transport (buses) as mobile sensors; the InSecTT bus, equipped with the on-board unit and specific sensors (integrating also other partners sensors), is able to collect a set of heterogeneous data from the vehicle inside environment, CANbus data, road environment can make these information available for improving smarter and safer mobility, completing the situation composition of the context with information about street environment and the vehicle itself.
This use case Impact is doublefold:
- Safety & Security toward passengers inside the Buses
- Buses as Vehicles Safety & Security
Business to Business
Optimizing Traffic flow, sustainability, Transport safety
· Fuel cost reduction (at least 5%).
· Less maintenance (Brakes, tires) (10%).
· Consumer friendly solutions.
· Increased road safety of equipped veh (25%).
· New sensors (minimum of 5).
· New infrastructural sensors for municipalities and road infrastructures managers (minimum of 5).
· Predictive Fleet Management.
Business to Government
Mobility: Predictive Traffic Management
· Reduction of pollution & CO2 (10%).
· Increased value of living in urban area.
· Optimal traffic control
· Reduction in AssetMan costs (10%) due to improved predictability and better data on asset use and intensity.
· Safety & Security.
· City Mobility Planning.
Targeted impacts are wide and concern the areas of safety, security, travelling information, predictive maintenance, remote control of buses and all capabilities oriented to collect driving and road data and information.
The impacts are related to different actors: public transport operators, bus manufacturer, road infrastructure manufacturer, government and road agencies, final/end users (people as customers).
The potential impacts of the project are more focused in the areas of safety, efficiency and environment in Smart City Areas:
- increasing real time reliability;
- reducing the number of fatalities and serious casualties caused by road crashes;
- reducing the costs associated with road trauma;
- improving productivity in road infrastructure use enhancing efficiency of logistic operations;
- reducing the environmental impacts of road transport, through less emissions and fuel use.
Impact related to targeted customers, are defined below.
The vehicles manufacturers (cars, vans, trucks, etc.), take a competitive lead relative to the potential of InSecTT: e.g. on-board device, which will be more user friendly, and a real-time and responsive integration between the data coming from the outside with the functionality of the vehicle.
Considering the revenue goals of all the companies handling fleet management issues, they have important impacts on the reduction of business risk, the optimization of delivery time, etc. Another impact is related to the insurance companies, as intermediate target, that could use this InSecTT use case result as safe driver application that tracks length of trips, speed, acceleration, braking, fatigue and phone usage, etc. in order to achieve: a) more punctual evaluation and profiling of prospective users, and b) more efficient evaluation of insurance premium for customers.
From a government perspective, the impacts for deploying this use case result deal with fleet management, infrastructure management and with a road safety focus that will reduce the number of crashes, delivering significant safety, efficiency and environmental benefits to its citizens.
The Future On-Board Unit (FOBU) will be a versatile integration platform for in-vehicle applications. The systems can be comprised of an Interface Unit, a Main Unit and application specific modules. The Main Unit provides an interface between the communication node, the operation centre, and any on-board devices. A bus equipped with sensors and FOBU provides the following capabilities:
- AVM and Fleet Management with accurate vehicles position tracking by utilising satellite signals (GPS, GALILEO, EGNOS, GLONAS) and dead-reckoning correction, in case of lack of signal;
- Communication of data, messaging and voice with call functionalities for on-board-centre, centre-on-board and on-board-on-board communications;
- Passenger Information Display Systems (PIDS) with native text-to-speech engine for notice to passenger through integrated audio system;
- Integration with external PIDS (i.e. Ameli, Aesys, ecc.) for real-time passenger information
- Security Video Surveillance for A/V recording; alarm management allows users to configure the automatic response action following a specific event. For instance, one can decide to start a video recording, to show a text alarm on the video or to mark the recordings for easy retrieval;
- Ticketing control and appliance;
- Driver Access Control by using smartcard with different profiles;
- Passenger Counter System by using POE IP Cameras.
The LDO On-Board Unit device evolution and testing inside this use case can download data acquired “on the move from the road” to the Central Integration System: when the bus returns to the depot can download all data collected during the shift to the Central System with the connection Wi-Fi/3G/4G/5G/Ethernet.
The Italian UC falls within the market for Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS) developed for public transport services. The market comprises safety and security solutions designed to improve passenger safety and enhance the competence of the overall transport process, by reducing the number of road accidents and travel time. According to some market analyses, the public transport segment covers approximately 15% of the TS market, which overall is expected to attain a value of US$57.44 billion worldwide by the end of 2024.
In more details, a notable increase in the demand for integrated mobile systems for public transportation has been registered in recent years, mostly due to anxieties regarding public security. Modern transportation service providers are willing to use multipurpose vehicle computing systems with monitoring capabilities to ensure the safety of their passengers.
Among the solution providers available in the market across Europe and North America, it is possible to cite the Trapeze Group, Clever Devices, Conduent Routematch, Cubic Transportation Systems and Avail Technologies for the American market. As for Europe, INIT, ENGIE Ineo, RATP Smart Systems, Vix Technology, GMV, Indra, Grupo ETRA, French Thales, PluService, Atron, FARA, Consat, Volvo and Swarco could be mentioned among the others.
The aim of the UC is in designing and testing a system to able to jointly use capabilities deriving from video and audio analysis to support safety critical scenarios within the considered UC. Such integration is typically missing in currently deployed solutions. Moreover, both exterior and interior environments should be monitored, deploying specifically designed sensors in the used
In the short term (2019-2021), despite the general shift towards shared mobility, vehicle unit sales will continue to grow. In this scenario the DriveBox market will mainly target OEMs. In the medium term (2022-2024) for favoring the deployment of the DriveBox, the market penetration approach will require, significant marketing investments to address a wider EU market with country ad hoc campaign. In the long term (2025-2030), once technological and regulatory issues have been resolved, DriveBox will be benefiting from its early adoption finding itself in a better position within a more complex and diversified mobility industry landscape.
Airport security - Structured and Unstructured People Flow in Airports
UNSTRUCTURED FLOW – OPEN SPACES
Business to Business
Distributed people flow monitoring and control
Airport security and safety
· Optimization of people flows inside the airport.
· Improvement of the efficiency and reduction of the latency in the detection of dangerous situations.
· Implementation of effective containment strategies for dangerous situations, with feedback to the monitoring system.
In 2017 more than 4 billion passengers travelled by air, resulting in over 8 billion passenger journeys through airports around the world (IATA Economic Performance of the Airline Industry). Over the last years, passenger traffic has grown by a compound rate of 7.4%; a rate that is unprecedented, but also indicative of the immense pressure placed on airport facilities globally. Airports with capacity constraints respond to higher throughput, by either investing in infrastructure expansion, or by optimizing processes. For the vast majority of the world’s airports, however, expansion is not an (affordable) option. This has culminated in the emergence of a set of IT solutions targeted at airport operators, collectively known as Passenger Flow Management (PFM). PFM refers to an ever-expanding universe of solutions used in the detection, tracking and overall management of passenger traffic. From the sensors that form integral part of an airport’s IoT infrastructure, to intelligent video analytics and software used for queue management, demand forecasting, capacity planning, and scenario planning. PFM can also involve the deployment of data platforms to integrate any type of passenger and baggage related data (movement, loyalty, mobile app, parking, e-commerce, etc.).
The most important advance sought in the project, which could represent a significant asset in the market, is the implementation of a multi-sensor processor for unstructured flow control and hazardous situations’ containment. By combining multiple sensors, an innovative monitoring system will be developed, in order to detect anomalies in open spaces and to provide a decision support system for assessing situation awareness and risk level.
Key components of the multi-sensor surveillance system will be tentatively deployed in associated airports to test the provided properties in real-life scenarios. In the short term (2019-2021), tests will be run, and the system will be improved on the basis of the collected responses.
In the medium term (2022-2024) significant marketing investments will be needed to address a wider EU market with country-ad-hoc campaigns. In the long term (2025-2030) it is expected to have the deployed technologies employed in several countries, with the possibility of interconnecting the treated systems.
STRUCTURED FLOW – BIOMETRICS ON THE MOVE
Business to Business
Optimizing and speed up the embarkment process flow
Air transport sector security improvement
· Development of an on-the-move biometric recognition system able to guarantee a throughput of 10 processed persons per minute for each deployed gate
· High security level with false acceptance rate (FAR) kept below 0.5%, exploiting discriminative information derived from multiple biometric technologies
Biometric technologies and therefore the considered UC belong to the market for Homeland Security & Public Safety. According to current forecasts, the entire market is expected to grow from $431 Billion in 2018 to $606 Billion in 2024. Within this sector, the specific global biometrics technology market is likely to reach $59.31 billion by 2025, according to a new study by Grand View Research, Inc., experiencing a compound annual growth rate (CAGR) of 19.5% during the forecast period. Biometrics technology is used by various verticals in public, private, and commercial sectors to counter security threats. In more details, a large impulse to the sector is given by the widening scope of applications of biometrics technology in consumer electronics, with the aim of improving customer satisfaction and security. Incorporation of biometrics technology into e-commerce applications can also enable secure transactions, especially with respect to banking and finance scenarios to increase efficiency and prevent frauds, thus unfolding several growth opportunities. Biometrics technology is also being increasingly acknowledged for e-passport programs and to keep a check on illegal migrations.
The most important advance sought in the project, which could represent a significant asset in the market, is the implementation of a biometric recognition system requiring minimum interaction with the involved subject, while guaranteeing efficiency and robustness against attacks.
Key components of the biometric recognition system will be tentatively deployed in associated airports to test the provided properties in real-life scenarios. In the short term (2019-2021), tests will be run and the system will be improved on the basis of the collected responses.
In the medium term (2022-2024) significant marketing investments will be needed to address a wider EU market with country-ad-hoc campaigns. In the long term (2025-2030) it is expected to have the deployed technologies employed in several countries, with the possibility of interconnecting the treated systems. Impact from beneficiary point of view